Illumination and optics
Xenon in space industry
Xenon in gas ionic laser
Xenon in electronics
Termal mirrow with xenon or krypton
Application of Xenon in space industry

Xenon and its fluorite combinations are used in the engines of space vehicles and in space industry. Using "xenon engines" of space vehicles - satellites of the Earth provides maintenance of communication satellites in the necessary points of the orbit and their orientation in vacuum. Besides "space xenon technology" will make satellites of the future more compact. However in perspective developments of space vehicles, xenon is already supposed to be used as basic propellant or a propulsive mass. Comparison quality of AKELA xenon quality and requirements NASA to quality of xenon for space satellites are equal. (See certificate of xenon for space satellites).

A jet xenon engine delivers thrust due to ejection of XENON particles charged in an electrostatic field from the nozzle and thus brings it in action. Negative quality of XENON ENGINE is a slow set to velocities of space vehicles. Positive quality is that it is reliable and cheaper. So an ion engine using XENON in the long run will replace existing engines. of space vehicles.
The review of Xenon world space use allows determining priorities for the further astronautics development.
Russia, ROSAVIACOSMOS (Russian Air-Space Agency)
France, European space agency


Application of Xenon  in Russian space industry
ROSAVIACOSMOS and Space-Rocket Corporation ENERGIA have long-term experience of application Xenon and projects of its use:
Satellite - telecommunication platform YAMAL-100 is equipped with the electrojet propulsion system, working on compressed xenon. At present prepares the series a satellite on the base of the platform "YAMAL".
The project of manned flight to Mars. Marsian manned orbital station will be equipped with a jet engine from some hundreds small engines connected in honeycomb. Application of Xenon in Europe and France space industry
The European space agency has the big space program application of xenon
The pilot less spacecraft SMART-1 for moon research in 2002. A constant plasma engine of control which uses xenon, as propellant will be used on a satellite.
The multi-purpose telecommunication satellite ARTEMIDA that started on 13.07.2001 uses ionized xenon as fuel.
A new highly effective onboard propulsion system for putting satellites into target orbit was put into operation. The space vehicle is used for putting into geostationary orbit a liquid apogee engine LAE and then for keeping it in "a point of standing" above ground. This system is established on space vehicles of PanAmSat - Galaxy XR Corporation started on 24.01.2001 and space vehicle PAS-9 start in 2002.
Application of Xenon in USA space industry
NASA has long-term experience of application Xenon and projects of its use:
In a space vehicle - probe DEEP SPACE 1 an ionic engine works on xenon spending only 100 grams of xenon per day. The Device was working from 1998 to December 2001(200 days) until Xenon fuel was over. NASA has closed the program on study of distant cosmos and Solar system by means of DEEP SPACE 1device. NASA engineers for searching water under Mars surface are creating the robot-borer of shells. Robot will form tube with two channels using circling liquid xenon as a working body. In nuclear energy applications, xenon is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is desirable.  

Liquid xenon is being used as a medium for detecting hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, it should, theoretically, strip an electron and create a primary scintillation. By using xenon, this burst of energy could then be readily distinguished from similar events caused by particles such as cosmic rays. However, the XENON experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy has thus far failed to find any confirmed WIMPs. Even if no WIMPs are detected, the experiment will serve to constrain the properties of dark matter and some physics models. The current detector at this facility is five times as sensitive as other instruments worldwide, and the sensitivity will be increased by an order of magnitude in 2008.

Xenon is the preferred fuel for ion propulsion of spacecraft because of its low ionization potential per atomic weight, and its ability to be stored as a liquid at near room temperature (under high pressure) yet be easily converted back into a gas to fuel the engine. The inert nature of xenon makes it environmentally friendly and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or cesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the 1970s. It was later employed as a propellant for Europe's SMART-1 spacecraft and for the three ion propulsion engines on NASA's Dawn Spacecraft. Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon, particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).The anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil can be produced by reacting xenon difluoride with uracil. Xenon is also used in protein crystallography. Applied at pressures from 0.5 to 5 MPa (5 to 50 atm) to a protein crystal, xenon atoms bind in predominantly hydrophobic cavities, often creating a high quality, isomorphism, heavy-atom derivative, which can be used for solving the phase problem

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